A recent study concluded that geographical distance has little or no influence on the choice of a twinned city by municipalities.  Twin cities are often chosen for similarities between them; Thus, about fifteen cities in Wales with cities in Brittany and Oxford with Bonn, Leiden, Grenoble and other university cities are urbanizable.  In Italy, a good example of town twinning is Rovigo with Viernheim, Bedford and Tulcea. Many former cities in West Germany are twinnings with former cities in East Germany; these partnerships were forged before the fall of the Iron Curtain. The partnerships between Hanover and Leipzig, both of which have important exhibition halls, or between Hamburg and Dresden, are famous examples. The first Uso-German twinning took place in 1947 between Worthington, Minnesota and Crailsheim.  St. Petersburg in Russia holds the record for the highest number of partnership agreements with other communities.  In June 2012, the Scottish village of Dull and the U.S.
town of Boring, Oregon, agreed to twin their communities to promote tourism in both locations and played with their names.    America, South Asia and Australasia use the term “twin cities” or “twin cities”. In China, the term 友好城市 (yǒuhǎo chéngshì – friendly cities).  Other government bodies sometimes establish a partnership relationship, such as the agreement between Hainan provinces in China and Jeju-do in South Korea. The douzelage is a twinning of towns with a city in the Member States of the European Union.   Twinning is increasingly used to establish strategic international trade relationships. For example, when Nottingham City Council in Britain considered installing a tram network in the 1990s, it consulted experts in its twin city of Karlsruhe, which has one of the largest and most efficient tram networks in Germany. With the help of specialist engineers from Karlsruhe, Nottingham completed its second tram line in 2013.  In 2014, Bristol and New Orleans announced their intention to enter into a tuning partnership based on a common musical heritage and cultural offering, at the initiative of Bristol Mayor George Ferguson.  Annecy, France, and Nerima, Tokyo, have shared a partnership based on their “co-existing animation industry” for several years.   In Europe, town twinning is supported by the European Union.
   The aid scheme was introduced in 1989. . . .